The ugly truth behind the much-touted power and irrigation infrastructure of Gujarat

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Voting for sixteenth Lok Sabha in India is over now. I hope this piece of my writing will not allege me for my being agent of Congress, pseudo-secularist, or an agent of Pakistan. I hope, I will be not included in the list of those who must be sent to Pakistan for their anti-Modi stand. After all, the article has no relevance in terms of damaging Narendra Bhai Modi Ji, at least for next five year or till the next general election. I did not dared to send this article to anywhere for publication because I cannot take risk to leave people of this country to suffer alone in the hand of a totalitarian regime.


Though Sardar Sarovar Yojana started long before Modi’s coming into power, he has been repeatedly tried to take credit for the project. His government is displacing huge number of peasant and tribals from their land in the name of increasing the height of the dam, and by promising water supply for the irrigation and other uses. But the condition of water supply in Gujarat is still in bad shape. Out of total 12181718 household in Gujarat only 4853819 households are getting treated Tapwater (Source: Socio-Economic Review, Gujarat State 2012-13, p. S-92). 1750000 people i.e. nearly 30% population of Gujarat are getting untreated drinking water. The progress is only 15% during the past 18 years. Almost 94% of Narmada waters go to industries leaving Saurashtra and Kutch without water for most part of the year (Source).

Modi has repeatedly increased the height of dam five times during his tenure quickly but when it comes to connecting the dam with the area of people’s habitation, more than 75% of the planned works of connection through canals still need to be started. Narmada dam was built quickly but another dam Kalpsar which was meant more supply of water to the common people was not started yet while it was sanctioned in 1998. According to Government of Gujarat the project could not be completed before 2020 so people of Gujarat still needs to wait for proper supply of water (Source).

Under Swajaldhara/ Sector Reform (State) programme, during the year 2011-12, 1057 (out of which 156 in tribal areas) schemes against the target of 1500 schemes and during the year 2012-13, 605 schemes (out of which 78in tribal areas) against the target of 1200 schemes were completed upto December, 2012 by WASMO. But If all the villages are getting supply of water how can the state’s own document reveal that only less than half of scheduled project completed till now (Source: Socio-Economic Review, Gujarat State, 2012-13, p. 60-62).

Since 1999, monsoon in Gujarat remained normal when finally in 2013 Gujarat witnessed a monsoon failure .. and all the claims of Gujarat Government about their work to solve the water problem in the state got exposed. Around 4000 villages of the state was declared drought affected. In order to divert people’s attention from the real cause behind persistent problem of water crisis in the state, Modi government again raised the issue of increasing the height of dam and started acquiring the land of tribals and peasants of the region. He again made same promises what they did when land was acquired for last five times during his tenure. Due to environmental reason and stiff opposition from the peasant, tribals of the region and civil society of India, Supreme Court of India refused to allow increase in height of dam and asked state government for the rehabilitation of the displaced people first and then only they can be allowed to increase the height. Modi Government refused to increase the height of dam as per Supreme Court’s recommendations. Even though Supreme Court of India is an independent authority, Modi now starts blaming Central Government for not allowing the increase in height of the dam and also for all water related problem in the state.

But Modi cannot blame Supreme Court or Union Government for all kind of water related crisis in the state for example in Gujarat out of total 225 blocks 57 (2011) are dark zone blocks which was only 45 in 2001 (Source). Dark Zone is region where ground level of water has been depleted to the dangerous level. In Rajkot the water levels of all the reservoirs of the region came down to only 3% of its actual capacity. Similarly in Amreli its 8.92%, in Jamnagar its 0.43%, in Junagadh its 6.06%, in Porbadar its 1.11%, in Bhavnagar its 5.29%, in Surendranagar its 7.15% and in Kutch its 14.04%. These are direct result of the unconditional use of water by the newly established industrial and commercial units in the region.

We should remember here that it is same Gujarat government who has given to TATA for his NaNo plant, 1400 litter water per day without any cost and for additional water they got permission to pump groundwater without any restriction and without paying any tax to the government. It is also important to note that this NaNo plant lies in a Dark Zone where use of ground water is prohibited for everyone. It’s difficult to convince how recent Gujarat government is deciding her policies on keeping in the interest of poor and peasants of the state.

In Mahua, where the Nirma group had been given 3,000 hectares for mining activities and a cement factory, BJP MLA Kanubhai Kalsaria objected that the water tank the villagers depended on would be badly damaged. He was sidelined and subsequently, he resigned from the party to fight the government’s policy (Source). Sujalam Suflam Yojana scam of Water Resources Ministry: Chief Minister have ordered to allot this work to GWRDC only to avoid the open competitive bidding and CAG audit. Expenditure of Rs. 1127.64 crores have been incurred upto 2008. Public Accounts Committee of Gujarat Assembly Unanimously prepared report having scam of more than Rs. 500 crores. Government have not allowed to table it in house (Source).

The prospective plan for the DMIC in the case of Gujarat on groundwater says “Major uses for domestic and irrigation from groundwater are likely to leave hardly any balance for industrial use. The state policy of Gujarat would need to allocate water for industrial use from the resources for irrigation depending upon the priority and requirement in the investment regions of Gujarat”. Not just that the Modi governemt has passed the Gujarat Irrigation and Drainage Act, 2013, which is a draconian piece of legislation. According to the Act, a farmer cannot install a bore well in his/her fields without Gujarat government permission (Source). Other measures of Gujarat government also reflect their desperateness to reduce the water consumption by peasants in the state. When drought hit the state in 2013, Revenue Minister of Gujarat, Anandi Patel declared that Rajkot will be provided 50MLD water supply from different sources of water originally meant for the irrigation purposes. She’s now the chief minister of Gujarat.

During 1990s the increase in consumption of electricity was highest in domestic sector, agriculture and in field of consumption for public water works while during 2000s the increase was highest in commercial and industrial sector while the consumption was decreased by around 16% in agriculture (Source: Socio-Economic Review, Gujarat State 2012-13, pp S-56-60). Due to Jyotigram scheme landless labourers who cultivate land on lease, face shortage of irrigation water and electricity because they don’t have ownership right over land and thus cannot get allocation of electricity and water under the scheme. Under Jyotigram scheme of Gujarat Government, the peasants are getting electricity for 8 hour a day while at the turn of millennium they were getting 10 to 12 hour electricity while in 1980s the farmers were getting 18-20 hours electricity supply (Source: Tushaar Shah & Shilp Verma, Co-Management of Electricity and Groundwater: An Assessment of Gujarat’s Jyotigram Scheme, Economic & Political Weekly, February 16, 2008, p. 59) .

The prices of water pump rises 40-60% in recent years (Source: Sucharita Sen and Chinmoyee Mallik, Understanding Gujarat’s Agricultural Growth in a liberalizing Environments : Signs of a Redefined Margin? Edt. By Atul Sood, 2012, p125) .

Gujarat is collecting highest tariff on electricity use for irrigation purposes. In past, farmer used to pay flat rate on electricity for agricultural use but now they have to pay with increasing rate. The tariff rate on electricity is 20% in rural areas if the consumption is less than 40 units per month and if the consumption is more 40 units, the duty will be 25% and 30% (Source). These made the life of people associated with agriculture and its allied sector unbearable.

The kind of excuse that state government is giving for providing less electricity for irrigation to the farmers are illogical. Gujarat government says that costly and limited supply of electricity for irrigation will make peasant realize the true value of electricity. They also argue that the costly and limited supply of electricity to peasants also limit the use of excess water for irrigation and thus will help in curtailing the problem of ground water depletion. What a pity on a rich state like Gujarat that instead of arranging any alternative irrigation facility for peasants of the state they want to put most of the burden of curtailing the problem of ground water depletion on weakest and starving section of her population while giving free hand to capitalist.

Written by Sanjeev Kumar >>

Student, writer and theater activist. Founder of Jagriti Natya Manch, which consist students from JNU, IIMC, and DU.

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Indian Exponent: The ugly truth behind the much-touted power and irrigation infrastructure of Gujarat
The ugly truth behind the much-touted power and irrigation infrastructure of Gujarat
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