15 Neutral analysis on the result of 1965 Indo-Pak War

SHARE:



There have been several neutral assessments of the losses incurred by both India and Pakistan during the war. Most of these assessments agree that India had the upper hand over Pakistan when ceasefire was declared. Some of the neutral assessments are mentioned below —

1. According to the Library of Congress Country Studies conducted by the Federal Research Division of the United States
The war was militarily inconclusive; each side held prisoners and some territory belonging to the other. Losses were relatively heavy—on the Pakistani side, twenty aircraft, 200 tanks, and 3,800 troops. Pakistan's army had been able to withstand Indian pressure, but a continuation of the fighting would only have led to further losses and ultimate defeat for Pakistan. Most Pakistanis, schooled in the belief of their own martial prowess, refused to accept the possibility of their country's military defeat by "Hindu India" and were, instead, quick to blame their failure to attain their military aims on what they considered to be the ineptitude of Ayub Khan and his government.

2. TIME magazine reported that
India held 690 mi2 of Pakistan territory while Pakistan held 250 mi2 of Indian territory in Kashmir and Rajasthan. Additionally, Pakistan had lost almost half its armour temporarily.

The article further elaborates,
Severely mauled by the larger Indian armed forces, Pakistan could continue the fight only by teaming up with Red China and turning its back on the U.N.

3. Devin T. Hagerty wrote in his book "South Asia in world politics"
The invading Indian forces outfought their Pakistani counterparts and halted their attack on the outskirts of Lahore, Pakistan's second-largest city. By the time United Nations intervened on September 22, Pakistan had suffered a clear defeat.

4. In his book "National identity and geopolitical visions", Gertjan Dijkink writes –
The superior Indian forces, however, won a decisive victory and the army could have even marched on into Pakistani territory had external pressure not forced both combatants to cease their war efforts.

6. An excerpt from Stanley Wolpert's India, summarizing the Indo-Pakistani War of 1965,
In three weeks the second Indo-Pak War ended in what appeared to be a draw when the embargo placed by Washington on U.S. ammunition and replacements for both armies forced cessation of conflict before either side won a clear victory. India, however, was in a position to inflict grave damage to, if not capture, Pakistan's capital of the Punjab when the cease-fire was called, and controlled Kashmir's strategic Uri-Poonch bulge, much to Ayub's chagrin.

7. In his book titled The greater game: India's race with destiny and China, David Van Praagh wrote
India won the war. It gained 1,840 km2 (710 sq mi) of Pakistani territory: 640 km2 (250 sq mi) in Azad Kashmir, Pakistan's portion of the state; 460 km2 (180 sq mi) of the Sailkot sector; 380 km2 (150 sq mi) far to the south of Sindh; and most critical, 360 km2 (140 sq mi) on the Lahore front. Pakistan took 540 km2 (210 sq mi) of Indian territory: 490 km2 (190 sq mi) in the Chhamb sector and 50 km2 (19 sq mi) around Khem Karan.

8. Dennis Kux's "India and the United States estranged democracies" also provides a summary of the war,
Although both sides lost heavily in men and material, and neither gained a decisive military advantage, India had the better of the war. New Delhi achieved its basic goal of thwarting Pakistan's attempt to seize Kashmir by force. Pakistan gained nothing from a conflict which it had instigated.

9. BBC reported that the war served game changer in Pakistani politics,
The defeat in the 1965 war led to the army's invincibility being challenged by an increasingly vocal opposition. This became a surge after his protege, Zulfikar Ali Bhutto, deserted him and established the Pakistan People's Party.

10. "A region in turmoil: South Asian conflicts since 1947" by Robert Johnson mentions -
India's strategic aims were modest – it aimed to deny Pakistani Army victory, although it ended up in possession of 720 square miles (1,900 km2) of Pakistani territory for the loss of just 220 square miles (570 km2) of its own.

11. An excerpt from William M. Carpenter and David G. Wiencek's "Asian security handbook: terrorism and the new security environment" –
A brief but furious 1965 war with India began with a covert Pakistani thrust across the Kashmiri cease-fire line and ended up with the city of Lahore threatened with encirclement by Indian Army. Another UN-sponsored cease-fire left borders unchanged, but Pakistan's vulnerability had again been exposed.

12. English historian John Keay's "India: A History" provides a summary of the 1965 war –
The 1965 Indo-Pak war lasted barely a month. Pakistan made gains in the Rajasthan desert but its main push against India's Jammu-Srinagar road link was repulsed and Indian tanks advanced to within a sight of Lahore. Both sides claimed victory but India had most to celebrate.

13. Uk Heo and Shale Asher Horowitz write in their book "Conflict in Asia: Korea, China-Taiwan, and India-Pakistan" –
Again India appeared, logistically at least, to be in a superior position but neither side was able to mobilize enough strength to gain a decisive victory.

14. Newsweek magazine, however, praised the Pakistani military's ability to hold off the much larger Indian Army.
By just the end of the week, in fact, it was clear that the Pakistanis were more than holding their own.

15. According to Office of the Historian U.S Department of State:
Conflict resumed again in early 1965, when Pakistani and Indian forces clashed over disputed territory along the border between the two nations. Hostilities intensified that August when the Pakistani army attempted to take Kashmir by force. The attempt to seize the state was unsuccessful, and the second India-Pakistan War reached a stalemate.

Also Read: 

Why India couldn't truly win the 1965 war despite being the much stronger side

Name

1965 War,3,66A,2,Aam Aadmi,1,AAP,37,AAP Rift,4,AAPtard,2,Abhishek Manu Singhvi,1,ABP News,1,ABVP,1,Acche Din,3,Achhe Din,2,Acid Attacks,1,Activism,3,Adarsh Liberal,5,Aditi Restaurant,1,Aditya Chaturvedi,5,Advertorial,1,Afghanistan,3,Africa,1,Afzal Guru,1,Agriculture,2,AIADMK,1,AIB Roast,1,Ajmal Kasab,1,Akshay Bhatt,1,Akshay Marathe,4,Akshay Thakre,1,Al Qaeda,2,Alcohol,1,Algeria,1,Alka Gurha,1,Allen George,2,Ambani,1,Amit Shah,2,Amrit Hallan,4,Amrita Rai,1,Analysis,21,Angola,1,Animal Rights,2,Animal Welfare Board of India,1,Aniruddh Chakraborty,1,Anjali Damania,4,Anjana Bhartia,1,Ankit Lal,1,Ankur Baruah,1,Anna Hazare,2,APJ Abdul Kalam,1,App,1,Apsara Iyengar,1,Arab Spring,1,Archived,110,Argentina,1,Argument,32,Arjun Kapoor,1,Arnab Goswami,5,Arpan Mukherjee Das,2,Arpita Biswas,1,Article Review,1,Arun Jaitley,1,Arundhati Roy,1,Arvind Kejriwal,42,Arvind Passey,1,ASEAN,3,Asha Dwarkanath,1,Asha Mirjie,1,Ashutosh,1,Ashutosh Gowarrikar,1,Asia,1,Assam,2,Atal Bihari Vajpayee,1,Atheism,1,AURA,1,Australia,1,Automobile Industry,1,Ayodhya,1,Ayush Verma,1,Babri Masji Demolition,2,Bajrang Dal,1,Balochistan,2,Bangladesh,2,Banking,1,Banned Books,1,Barkha Dutt,1,Beant Singh,1,Beef,5,Beef Ban,3,Beijing,3,Bestiality,1,Bhagat Singh,2,Bhagwad Gita,2,Bhakts,1,Bihar,3,Bizarre,1,BJP,35,Black Money,1,Bodoland,1,Bodos,1,Bollywood,5,Book Review,2,BR Ambedkar,2,Brain Drain,1,Brazil,1,Breaking Bad,1,Bribery,2,BRICS,1,BRP Bhaskar,1,Brundi,1,BSP,1,Buddhism,1,Burhan Wani,1,Burma,1,Business,1,CAG,2,Capital Punishment,1,Capitalism,1,Caste System,7,CBI,2,CBSE,1,CCP,1,CGA,1,Chanakya,1,Chandrajith Bhaskar,1,Charlie Hebdo,3,Chennai,1,Chennai Express,1,Child Abuse,2,Child Rights,1,China,14,Christianity,5,Christians,2,CIA,1,CIC,1,Citylights,1,Civic Sense,3,Civil Liberties,7,Civil Rights,1,Click Bait,1,CNN-IBN,2,Coal Scam,1,ColorsTV,1,Comedy Nights,1,Comics,12,Commentary,37,Communal,10,Communal Harmony,2,Communism,7,Congress,28,Consent,1,Constipation,1,Constitution,7,Construction,1,Contract Labor,1,Controversy,3,Copyright Infringement,1,Corruption,21,Cow,4,Cows,2,CPM,1,Cricket,1,Crime,10,Criminal Candidates,2,Crorepati Candidates,1,Culture,12,Cut to the chase,1,CV Raman,1,Dadri,4,Dalit,3,Daud Ibrahim,1,Death Sentence,1,Debate,2,Decentralisation,1,Deepa Mehta,1,Deepika Padukone,2,Defence,5,Dehradun,1,Delhi,24,Delhi Gangrape,2,Delhi Police,2,Delhi University,2,Democracy,8,Development,7,Digital India,1,Digvijay Singh,3,Dileep Padgaonkar,1,Diplomacy,3,Discipline,1,Discrimination,4,Diversity,4,Divorce Act,1,DMK,1,Documents,1,Domestic Violence,1,Dr Bijoy Bagchi,6,Dr Brook Robinson,1,Dr Munish Kumar Raizada,1,Dr Saumya Ritesh,3,Dr Shelly Dsouza,2,Dr Sukant Khurana,3,Draupadi,1,DRDO,1,Drugs,1,DTC,1,DTPH,1,Earthquake,3,Economy,16,Education,5,Egypt,1,Ekta Rawat,1,Elections,14,English Vinglish,1,Entertainment,5,Environment,3,Equality,6,Ethiopia,1,Europe,1,Explained,1,Exposed,15,Facebook,1,Facts,1,Family,1,Fan Fiction,1,Farmers,7,Favorites,10,FDI,1,Featured,7,Feminism,12,Film Review,3,Finance,1,Focus,6,Food Security Bill,2,Foreign Policy,32,FP,13,France,5,Francois Gautier,1,Freedom,3,Freedom of Speech,4,Friedrich Hayek,1,Fringe,3,Front Page,29,Frontpage,4,Fundamental Rights,1,Gandhi Jayanti,1,Gandhian,1,Gandhis,3,Ganga,1,Gaurav Kumar,1,Gauri Mailekhi,1,Gautam Joshi,1,Gay Rights,5,GDP,2,Geeta,1,Geetika Suicide Case,1,Get Ahead,2,Ghar Vapsi,1,Google,1,Gopal Kanda,1,Gorkhaland,1,Governance,3,Greg JS,1,Guidelines,1,Gujarat,5,Gujarat Riots,5,Gulf,2,Gurmehar Kaur,2,Hadith,2,Hafiz Sayeed,5,Harish Salve,1,Harit Pradesh,1,Harsh Pratap,2,Harshvardhan,1,Hartosh Singh Bal,1,Haryana,2,Hasee Toh Phasee,1,Hate Speech,1,Health,4,Heart Disease,1,Hema Malini,1,Hemant Dubey,4,Highlight,6,Himadrish Suwan,22,Hindi Media,2,Hindu Fringe,5,Hinduism,12,Hindus,12,Hindutva,14,History,11,Homophobia,1,Homosexuality,3,Honor Killing,1,Housing,1,HUJI,1,Human Resource,1,Human Rights,4,Humor,3,Hunger,1,Hurriyat,5,Hyderabad,1,IAC,2,IAEA,1,Ideas,3,Imperialism,1,Incest,1,Independence Day,1,Indian Air Force,1,Indian Army,5,Indian Freedom Movement,2,Indian Media,11,Indian Men,1,Indian Mujaheedin,1,Indian Muslims,1,Indian Navy,3,Indian Ocean,3,Indian Parents,1,Indian Penal Code,1,Indian Police,4,Indian Women,8,Indians,4,IndiaTV,1,Indira Gandhi,1,Indo-China War,1,Indo-Iran,1,Indo-Pacific Region,1,Indo-Pak,7,Indus,1,Industry,1,Infrastructure,3,Inside Voices,1,Insider,4,Intelligence,1,Internet.org,1,IOR,3,IPL,1,Iran,2,Iraq,1,Ishaan Mohan Bagga,43,Ishrat Jahan,1,ISI,3,ISIS,6,Islam,21,Islamic Fundamentalists,4,Islamophobia,2,Israel,2,Issues,8,IT,1,IT Act,1,J&K,7,Jai Dehadrai,1,Jains,1,Jammu,1,Jana Hitwadi,1,Japan,4,Jaswant Singh,1,Jayasankar Ambadi,1,JDU,3,Jihad,4,Jiten Ram Manjhi,1,Jitendra Singh,1,JNU,4,Journalism,4,JP Sundharam,13,JuD,1,Judaism,1,Judges,2,Judiciary,7,Justice,2,Justice Katju,2,Kabul,1,Kamla Nehru Hospital,1,Kandhar,1,Kanu Agrawal,1,Kapil Sharma,1,Kapil Sibal,1,Kapila Hingorani,1,Karan Johar,1,Karan Thapar,1,Karan Tiwari,1,Karavali,1,Kargil War,1,Kartik Dora,1,Kashinath Pandit,6,Kashmir,20,Kashmir Issue,13,Kashmiri Pandits,3,Kashmiris,2,Kerala,2,Kerala Bhavan,1,Keshav Iyengar,2,Khirki Extension,2,Khushwant Singh,1,Kiran Batni,1,Kiran Bedi,2,Kishtwar,1,Kissing,1,KKHH,1,Konkan,1,Koran,5,Kosal,1,Koshika Kejriwal,1,Kothari Brothers,1,KP Nayar,1,Kulbhushan Jadhav,2,Kumar Shyam,1,Kumar Vishwas,1,Kunwar Pranav Singh,1,Kuwait,1,Lalu Prasad,1,Land Acquisition Bill,5,Landslides,1,Language,1,Lavanya Viswanathan,3,Law,13,Law Enforcement,1,Law Ministry,1,Learning English,1,Left Liberals,5,LeT,1,Letters,1,LGBT,5,Liberals,5,Lifehacks,1,Lifestyle,2,Lila Inter-actions,2,LK Advani,1,Lokesh Saxena,1,Lokpal,1,Lokpal Bill,2,Lord Buddha,1,Lord Krishna,1,Lord Ram,1,Love Jihad,1,Madhur Chadha,1,Mahabharat,2,Maharashtra,4,Mahatma Gandhi,3,Mahesh Sharma,1,Make in India,1,Mallika Sarabhai,1,Malnutrition,1,Mani Shankar Aiyyar,2,Manifesto,1,Manish Paul,12,Manish Sisodia,2,Manjhi,1,Manmohan Singh,3,Manohar Lal Khattar,1,Manu,1,Manufacturing,1,Manusmriti,1,Marathwada,1,Maritime,3,Mark Zuckerberg,1,Marriage Act,3,Mayank Gandhi,5,Mayur Jain,1,MCD,2,McDonald,1,MEA,1,Mecca,1,Media,27,Media Review,1,Medical Negligence,1,Meera Bhaynder,1,Mehbooba Mufti,3,Meme,4,Men's Rights,3,Middle-east,2,Migrants,1,Mika Singh,1,Milan Kumar,7,Minorities,1,Misandry,1,Misogyny,8,MMS,1,MNS,1,Moarlity,1,Mohan Bhagwat,2,Mona Singh,1,Morality,9,Mother Teresa,1,Mother Tongue,1,MPs,1,MRA,1,MSG Movie,1,Mulayam Singh,3,Mumbai,4,Municipality,2,Muslim Women,2,Muslims,18,My Story,4,Myanmar,1,Mysore,1,Mythology,2,Nandita Das,1,Nani Palkhivala,1,Narendra Modi,45,Narmada,1,National Security,7,Nationalism,1,Natural Disaster,4,Nature,1,Navbharat Times,1,Navjot Singh Siddhu,1,Nawaz Sharif,3,Naxalism,2,Naxalites,2,NCP,1,NDA,1,NDTV,2,Neha Taneja,1,Nehru,1,Nepal,1,Net Neutrality,1,NGOs,1,NIA,1,Nido Tania,1,Nigeria,2,Nirbhaya,3,Nirmal Baba,1,Nitish Kumar,2,Nobel Prize,1,Non-violence,1,North Korea,2,North-East India,2,Nuclear Bomb,3,Nuclear Power,1,Objectification,1,Oil,5,OLX,1,Olympics,1,On Social Media,1,On TV,2,ONGC,1,Open Letter,17,Opinion,11,Owaisi,1,P Chidambaram,1,Paan,1,Paan Singh Tomar,1,Pakistan,30,Pakistan Army,2,Pakistanis,1,Pappu,1,Parenting,1,Parliament Attack,1,Parsis,2,Partition,1,Passion Crimes,1,PDA,1,PDP,4,Pedophilia,1,Personality,2,Peshawar,1,Petrol,1,Philippines,1,Philosophy,1,PIL,3,POK,2,Police,2,Policy,18,Policy Watch,9,Political,6,Politics,44,Pollution,1,Polyandry,1,Polygamy,1,Poorvanchal,1,Populism,1,Pornography,3,Poverty,8,Prakash Gowda,5,Prakash Sharma,7,Prannoy Roy,1,Prashant Bhushan,11,Pre Poll Survey,1,Pritish Nandy,1,Priyanka Gandhi,1,Prophet Mohammad,2,Psecularism,7,Public Safety,1,Punjab,1,Punjabis,1,Quotes,1,Racism,1,Raghav Gakhar,2,Rahul Gandhi,14,Rahul Sharma,1,Rahul Singh,1,Rajaram Balajee,1,Rajat Sharma,1,Rajdeep Sardesai,1,Rajguru,1,Rakhi Sawant,1,Ram Mandir,1,Ramayan,1,Ramjas College,1,Ranbir Kapoor,1,Ranveer Singh,1,Rape,18,Rashamohan Singh,1,Ravi Kulkarni,2,Ravi Srivastava,1,Ravish Kumar,1,RAW,1,Real Estate,4,Recall,2,Reforms,2,Regional Cancer Center,1,Relationships,1,Reliance,1,Religion,14,Religious Conversion,3,Renaissance,1,Republic,6,Republic Day,1,Research,3,Reservation,3,Review,5,Richa Paul,1,Right Wing,3,Riots,3,Road Rage,1,Road Safety,3,Roads,1,Robert Vadra,1,Rohit Aggarwal,1,Rohit Nigam,1,Rohit Shetty,1,Rohith Vemula,1,RSS,9,RTI,6,Rural,6,Russia,8,S Ravi,1,Sagarika Ghose,1,Sahajanya Balaganesh,2,Sakshi Maharaj,1,Salil Desai,1,Salman Khan,1,Samajwadi Party,3,Sameer Khan,1,Sangeet Som,1,Sanitation,2,Sanjay Joshi,1,Sanjeev Kumar,1,Satire,22,Saudi Arabia,3,Saurashtra,1,Schedule Caste,4,Science,1,Section 377,4,Secularism,10,Sedition,1,Seemandhra,1,Selfie,1,Sensationalism,1,Separatist,9,Sex Ratio,1,Sex Tape,1,Sex-Ed,1,Sexist,10,Sexual Abuse,4,Sexual Harassment,4,Shabana Azmi,1,Shabnam Latiwala,1,Shahrukh Khan,1,Shamim Zakaria,6,Shana Sood,2,Shashi Tharoor,1,Shashwati Goswami,1,Shastras,1,Shefali Vaidya,2,Sheila Dikshit,1,Shias,1,Shimla Accord,1,Shirish Asthana,2,Shiv Sena,2,Shoma Chaudhury,1,Short Takes,1,Shorts,2,Shruti Seth,1,Shweta Gurjar,1,Siddharth Rathod,1,Sidebar,13,Sikh Riots,1,Sikhs,1,Sleazy Reporting,1,Smart Cities,1,Smita Mukerji,1,Snadeal,1,Snoop Gate,1,Social Media,2,Social Responsibility,1,Socialism,3,Societal,12,Society,30,Soft Drinks,1,Somnath Bharti,4,Somu Kumar,1,Sonia Gandhi,5,Sourabh Jyoti Sharma,18,South Africa,1,South Asia,3,South China Sea,2,South Korea,1,South-Indians,1,Soviet Union,1,SP,1,Speech Excerpts,1,Spirituality,1,Spitters,1,Sports,1,SRCC,1,Sreesanth,1,Students,1,Study Abroad,1,Subramanian Swamy,1,Sudheendra Kulkarni,1,Sufis,1,Sukhdev,1,Sumanth G Rao,1,Sumnesh Salodkar,1,Sunanda Pushkar,1,Supreme Court,8,Surya Solanki,2,Sushant Taing,1,Sushma Swaraj,3,Swachh Bharat Abhiyan,1,Swami Vivekananda,1,Swaraj,3,Syria,1,Taiwan,1,Tapas Mohanty,3,Tarun Tejpal,1,Tathagat Khandelwal,3,Taxation,1,Technology,1,Tehelka,1,Telangana,1,Terrorism,26,Thane,1,The Economist,1,The Hindus,1,The Telegraph,1,Third Front,1,Thoughts,8,Tibet,2,Tiger Memon,1,Times Group,1,Times Now,4,Times of India,2,Tina Jindal,1,Traffic Rules,1,Transgender,1,Trending,226,Trends,1,Trina Nileena Banerjee,1,Trolls,1,Twitter,1,Ugly Truth,2,UK,2,UN,1,Unauthorised Colonies,1,Uniform Civil Code,2,UP,1,UPA,9,US,2,USA,7,Uttar Pradesh,5,Uttarakhand,2,V Jaganmohan,1,Vansh Saluja,1,Varun Tangri,1,Ved Pratap Vaidik,1,Ved Pratap Vedik,1,Vedanta,1,VHP,2,Vidya Subrahmaniam,1,Vidyut Kale,5,Vietnam,1,Vijay Goel,1,Vineeta Tiwari,1,Vir Das,1,Virat Kohli,2,Vishesh Kashyap,4,Vitthal Radadiya,1,Vladimir Putin,1,Vote Bank,1,Voter,1,VVIPs,2,Wahhabism,3,War,2,Water,1,Weapons,5,Wendy Doniger,1,Women,14,Women Empowerment,13,Women Safety,12,World,3,World War II,1,WTO,1,Xi Jinping,1,Yakub Memon,2,Yogendra Yadav,10,Yogi Adityanath,1,Zahoor Ahmed Wani,1,Zakir Naik,1,Zimbabwe,1,
ltr
item
Indian Exponent: 15 Neutral analysis on the result of 1965 Indo-Pak War
15 Neutral analysis on the result of 1965 Indo-Pak War
https://2.bp.blogspot.com/-yXLmPyJz7rI/VgBNHQGqFoI/AAAAAAAACys/wZly0sTGq5E/s640/bm-image-716241.jpeg
https://2.bp.blogspot.com/-yXLmPyJz7rI/VgBNHQGqFoI/AAAAAAAACys/wZly0sTGq5E/s72-c/bm-image-716241.jpeg
Indian Exponent
http://www.indianexponent.com/2015/09/15-neutral-analysis-on-result-of-1965-indo-pak-war.html
http://www.indianexponent.com/
http://www.indianexponent.com/
http://www.indianexponent.com/2015/09/15-neutral-analysis-on-result-of-1965-indo-pak-war.html
true
2092170621401459056
UTF-8
Loaded All Posts Not found any posts VIEW ALL Readmore Reply Cancel reply Delete By Home PAGES POSTS View All RECOMMENDED FOR YOU LABEL ARCHIVE SEARCH ALL POSTS Not found any post match with your request Back Home Sunday Monday Tuesday Wednesday Thursday Friday Saturday Sun Mon Tue Wed Thu Fri Sat January February March April May June July August September October November December Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec just now 1 minute ago $$1$$ minutes ago 1 hour ago $$1$$ hours ago Yesterday $$1$$ days ago $$1$$ weeks ago more than 5 weeks ago Followers Follow THIS CONTENT IS PREMIUM Please share to unlock Copy All Code Select All Code All codes were copied to your clipboard Can not copy the codes / texts, please press [CTRL]+[C] (or CMD+C with Mac) to copy